1 - Any dispute involving patrimonial interests may be referred by the parties to arbitration, by means of an arbitration agreement, provided that it is not exclusively submitted by a special law to the State courts or to compulsory arbitration.
2 - An arbitration agreement concerning disputes that do not involve patrimonial interests is also valid provided that the parties are entitled to conclude a settlement on the right in dispute.
3 - The arbitration agreement may concern an existing dispute, even if it has been brought before a State court (submission agreement), or disputes that may arise from a given legal relationship, of contractual or non-contractual nature (arbitration clause).
4 - In addition to matters of a strictly contentious nature, the parties may agree to submit to arbitration any other issues that require the intervention of an impartial decision maker, including those related to the need to specify, complete and adapt contracts with long-lasting obligations to new circumstances.
5 - The State and other legal entities governed by public law may enter into arbitration agreements insofar as they are authorized to do so by law, or if such agreements concern private law disputes.
1 - The arbitration agreement shall be in writing.
2 - The requirement that the arbitration agreement be in writing is met if the agreement is recorded in a written document signed by the parties, in an exchange of letters, telegrams, faxes or other means of telecommunications which provide a written record of the agreement, including electronic means of communication.
3 - The requirement that the arbitration agreement be in writing is met if it is recorded on an electronic, magnetic, optical or any other type of support, that offers the same guarantees of reliability, comprehensiveness and preservation.
4 - Without prejudice to the legal regime on general contract clauses, the reference made in a contract to a document containing an arbitration clause constitutes an arbitration agreement, provided that such contract is in writing and that the reference is such as to make that clause part of the contract.
5 - The requirement that the arbitration agreement be in writing is also met when there is an exchange of statements of claim and defense in arbitral proceedings, in which the existence of such an agreement is invoked by one party and not denied by the other.
6 - A submission agreement shall specify the subject-matter of the dispute; an arbitration clause shall specify the legal relationship to which the disputes are related.
(*) NB - Notwithstanding the fact that this word (“rescission”) is written in the official version of the Portuguese “LAV” the truth is that this article does not provide any provision whatsoever concerning the “rescission” (understood as an act whereby any contract or agreement is canceled, annulled, or abrogated by will of the parties).
The arbitration agreement entered into in breach of the provisions of articles 1 and 2 is null and void.
1 - The arbitration agreement may be modified by the parties until the acceptance of the first arbitrator or, if all arbitrators agree thereto, until the arbitral award is issued.
2 - The arbitration agreement may be rescinded by the parties, until the arbitral award is issued.
3 - The agreement of the parties foreseen in the preceding paragraphs must be in writing and comply with the provisions of article 2.
4 - Unless otherwise agreed, the death or the extinction of the parties shall neither render the arbitration agreement forfeit nor lead to the termination of the arbitral proceedings.
1 - The State court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the object of an arbitration agreement shall, if the respondent so requests not later than when submitting its first statement on the substance of the dispute, dismiss the case, unless it finds that the arbitration agreement is clearly null and void, is or became inoperative or is incapable of being performed.
2 - In the case foreseen in the previous paragraph, arbitral proceedings may be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the issue is pending before the State court.
3 - The arbitral proceedings shall cease and the award made therein shall cease to produce effects, when a state court considers, by means of a final and binding decision, that the arbitral tribunal is incompetent to settle the dispute that was brought before it, whether such decision is rendered in the action referred to in paragraph 1 of the present article, or whether it is rendered under article 18, paragraph 9, and under article 46, paragraph 3, sub-paragraph a), points i) and iii).
4 - The issues of invalidity, inoperativeness or unenforceability of an arbitration agreement cannot be discussed autonomously in an action brought before a State court to that effect or in an interim measure procedure brought before the same court, aiming at preventing the constitution or the operation of an arbitral tribunal.
All references made in this Law to provisions of the arbitration agreement or to the agreement between the parties include not only what the parties have directly regulated therein, but also the arbitration rules to which the parties have referred to.
It is not incompatible with an arbitration agreement for a party to request from a State court, before or during the arbitral proceedings, an interim measure and for a State court to grant such a measure.
1 - The arbitral tribunal may consist of a sole arbitrator or of several, in an uneven number.
2 - Should the parties fail to agree on the number of members of the arbitral tribunal, the arbitral tribunal shall consist of three arbitrators.
1 - The arbitrators must be individuals and have full legal capacity.
2 - No person shall be precluded, by reason of that person’s nationality, from being appointed as an arbitrator, without prejudice to the provisions of article 10, paragraph 6, and the discretion of the parties.
3 - Arbitrators must be independent and impartial.
4 - Arbitrators may not be held liable for damages resulting from their decisions, save for those situations in which judges may be so.
5 - The liability of the arbitrators as mentioned in the preceding paragraph only exists towards the parties.
1 - The parties are free to appoint the arbitrator or arbitrators that shall form the arbitral tribunal in the arbitration agreement or in a document subsequently signed by the parties, or to agree on a procedure for appointing them, notably by entrusting the appointment of all or some of the arbitrators to a third party.
2 - In an arbitration with a sole arbitrator, if the parties are unable to agree on the arbitrator’s appointment, such arbitrator shall be appointed, upon request of any party, by the State court.
3 - In an arbitration with three or more arbitrators, each party shall appoint an equal number of arbitrators and the arbitrators thus appointed shall appoint a further arbitrator, who shall act as chairman of the arbitral tribunal.
4 - Unless otherwise agreed, if a party is to appoint an arbitrator or arbitrators and fails to do so within 30 days of receipt of the other party’s request to do so, or if the arbitrators appointed by the parties fail to agree on the choice of the chairman within 30 days of the appointment of the last arbitrator to be appointed, the appointment of the remaining arbitrator or arbitrators shall be made, upon request of any of the parties, by the competent State court.
5 - Unless otherwise agreed, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply if the parties have entrusted the appointment of all or some of the arbitrators to a third party and the appointment does not occur within 30 days of the request to do so.
6 - In appointing an arbitrator, the competent State court shall have due regard to any qualifications required of the arbitrator or arbitrators by the agreement of the parties and to such considerations as are likely to secure the appointment of an independent and impartial arbitrator; in the case of an international arbitration, while appointing a sole or third arbitrator, the court shall furthermore take into account the advisability of appointing an arbitrator of a nationality other than those of the parties.
7 - The decisions made by the competent State court under the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this article are not subject to appeal.
1 - In case of multiple claimants or respondents, and if the arbitral tribunal is to consist of three arbitrators, the claimants shall jointly appoint an arbitrator and the respondents shall jointly appoint another one.
2 - Should the claimants or the respondents fail to reach an agreement on the arbitrator to be appointed by them, the appointment of such arbitrator shall be made, upon request of any party, by the competent State court.
3 - In the case foreseen in the previous paragraph, the State court may appoint all arbitrators and indicate which one of them shall be the chairman, if it becomes clear that the parties that failed to jointly appoint an arbitrator have conflicting interests regarding the substance of the dispute, and in such event the appointment of the arbitrator meanwhile made by one of the parties shall become void.
4 - The provisions of this article are without prejudice to what may have been stipulated in the arbitration agreement for multi-party arbitrations.
1 - No person may be compelled to act as an arbitrator; but if the mandate has been accepted, withdrawal shall only be legitimate if it is based on a supervening impossibility of the appointee to perform said appointee’s functions, or in case of non-conclusion of the agreement referred to in article 17, paragraph 1.
2 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, each appointed arbitrator shall, within 15 days from the notice of his or her appointment, declare in writing the acceptance of the mandate to whomever appointed him or her; if within such period the arbitrator neither declares his or her acceptance, nor in any other way reveals his or her intent to act as an arbitrator, such arbitrator shall be deemed not to accept the appointment.
3 - The arbitrator who, having accepted the mandate, unjustifiably withdraws from exercising his or her office shall be liable for the damages caused.
1 - When a person is invited to act as an arbitrator, he or she shall disclose any circumstances that may give rise to justifiable doubts as to his or hers impartiality and independence.
2 - The arbitrator shall, throughout the arbitral proceedings, disclose without delay to the parties and the remaining arbitrators any of the circumstances referred to in the preceding paragraph that arise subsequently, or of which he only became aware after accepting the mandate.
3 - An arbitrator may only be challenged if circumstances exist that give rise to justifiable doubts as to the arbitrator’s impartiality or independence, or if the arbitrator does not possess the qualifications agreed to by the parties. A party may only challenge an arbitrator appointed by it, or in whose appointment it has participated, for reasons of which it becomes aware after the appointment has been made.
1 - The parties are free to agree on a procedure for challenging an arbitrator, subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this article.
2 - Failing such agreement, the party intending to challenge an arbitrator shall, within fifteen days after becoming aware of the constitution of the arbitral tribunal or after becoming aware of the circumstances referred to in article 13, send to the arbitral tribunal a written statement of the reasons for the challenge. If the challenged arbitrator does not withdraw from office and the party that appointed such arbitrator insists that the arbitrator continues in office, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged arbitrator, shall decide on the challenge.
3 - If a challenge under any procedure agreed upon by the parties or under the procedure of paragraph 2 of this article is not successful, the challenging party may request, within 15 days after having received notice of the decision rejecting the challenge, the competent State court to decide on the challenge, which decision shall be subject to no appeal. While such a request is pending, the arbitral tribunal, including the challenged arbitrator, may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award.
1 - The arbitrator’s mandate shall terminate if he becomes, de jure or de facto, incapable to perform his or her functions, if he or she withdraws from office or if the parties agree on the termination on such grounds.
2 - If an arbitrator, for any other reason, fails to perform his or her functions within a reasonable period of time, the parties may, by mutual agreement, terminate the mandate, without prejudice to any eventual liability of the arbitrator in question.
3 - If the parties cannot agree on the termination in any of the situations referred to in the preceding paragraphs of this article, any party may request the competent State court to remove such arbitrator from office, on those grounds, which decision of the state court shall be subject to no appeal.
4 - If, under the preceding paragraphs of this article or under article 14, paragraph 2, an arbitrator withdraws from office or if the parties agree on the termination of the mandate of an arbitrator allegedly found to be in one of the circumstances referred therein, that does not involve the acceptance of the validity of the grounds for the removal from office mentioned in those provisions.
1 - Where, for any reason, the mandate of an arbitrator terminates, a substitute arbitrator shall be appointed, according to the rules applicable to the appointment of the arbitrator being replaced, without prejudice to the parties agreeing that the replacement shall be made otherwise or waiving such replacement.
2 - The arbitral tribunal shall decide, taking into consideration the stage of the proceedings, whether any procedural act should be repeated in view of the new composition of the tribunal.
1 - If the parties have failed to regulate such matters in the arbitration agreement, the arbitrators ́ fees, the method of reimbursement of their expenses and the payment by the parties of advances on such fees and expenses shall be agreed upon in writing by the parties and the arbitrators, said agreement to be entered into before the acceptance by the last of the arbitrators to be appointed.
2 - If such matters have not been regulated in the arbitration agreement, and an agreement thereon has not been entered into between the parties and the arbitrators, the arbitrators shall, taking into consideration the complexity of the issues decided, the amount in dispute and the time spent or to be spent with the arbitral proceedings until its conclusion, fix the amount of their fees and expenses, and furthermore determine the payment by the parties of their advance payments, by means of one or several decisions separate from those in which procedural issues or the substance of the dispute are decided.
3 - In the situation foreseen in the previous paragraph of the present article, any of the parties may request the competent State court to reduce the amounts of the fees or the expenses and respective advance payments fixed by the arbitrators, whereby that state court may define the amounts it deems adequate, after having heard the members of the arbitral tribunal on the issue.
4 - In the case of a failure to make advance payments for fees and expenses previously agreed or fixed by the arbitral tribunal or the State court, the arbitrators may suspend or end the arbitral proceedings after a reasonable additional time-limit granted to that effect to the party or parties in default has elapsed, without prejudice to the provisions of the following paragraph of this article.
5 - If one of the parties has not made its advance payment within the time-limit determined in accordance with the previous paragraph, the arbitrators, before deciding to suspend or end the arbitral proceedings, shall give notice thereof to the remaining parties so that these may, if they wish, remedy the failure to make said advance payment within the time-limit granted to that effect.
1 - The arbitral tribunal may rule on its own jurisdiction, even if for that purpose it is necessary to assess the existence, the validity or the effectiveness of the arbitration agreement or of the contract of which it forms part, or the applicability of the said arbitration agreement.
2 - For the purpose of the previous paragraph, an arbitration clause that forms part of a contract shall be treated as an agreement independent of the other terms of the contract.
3 - The decision by the arbitral tribunal that the contract is null and void shall not automatically entail the invalidity of the arbitration clause.
4 - A plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction to hear the whole or part of the dispute submitted to it shall be raised not later than the submission of the statement of defense as to the substance of the dispute, or jointly with it.
5 - A party is not precluded from raising a plea that the arbitral tribunal does not have jurisdiction to hear the dispute brought before it by the fact that it has appointed, or participated in the appointment of, an arbitrator.
6 - A plea that the arbitral tribunal, in the course of the arbitral proceedings, has exceeded or may exceed its jurisdiction shall be raised as soon as the issue alleged to be beyond the scope of its jurisdiction is raised during the proceedings.
7 - The arbitral tribunal may, in the cases mentioned in paragraphs 4 and 6 of the present article, allow that a plea based on the arguments mentioned in the said paragraphs be presented after the time-limits established therein, if it considers the delay justified.
8 - The arbitral tribunal may rule on its jurisdiction either in an interim decision or in the award on the merits.
9 - The interim decision by which the arbitral tribunal rules that it has jurisdiction may, within 30 days after its notification to the parties, be challenged by any of them before the competent State court, under article 46, paragraph 3, sub-paragraph a), points i) and ii), and under article 59, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph f).
10 - While the challenge mentioned in the previous paragraph is pending in the competent State court, the arbitral tribunal may continue the arbitral proceedings and make an award on the merits of the dispute, without prejudice to the provisions of article 5, paragraph 3.
In the matters governed by this Law, State courts may only intervene where so provided in this Law.
1 - Unless otherwise agreed, the arbitral tribunal may, at the request of a party and after hearing the opposing party, grant the interim measures it deems necessary in relation to the subject-matter of the dispute.
2 - For the purpose of this Law, an interim measure is a temporary measure, whether in the form of an award or in another form, by which, at any time prior to the issuance of the award by which the dispute is finally decided, the arbitral tribunal orders a party to:
a) Maintain or restore the status quo pending determination of the dispute;
b) Take action that would prevent, or refrain from taking action that is likely to cause, harm or prejudice to the arbitral process itself;
c) Provide a means of preserving assets out of which a subsequent award may be satisfied;
d) Preserve evidence that may be relevant and material to the resolution of the dispute.
1 - Interim measures requested under article 20, paragraph 2, sub-paragraphs a), b) and c) shall be granted by the arbitral tribunal as long as:
a) There is a serious probability that the right invoked by the requesting party exists and the fear that such right will be harmed is sufficiently evidenced; and
b) The harm resulting from the interim measure to the party against whom the measure is directed does not substantially outweigh the damage that the requesting party wishes to avoid with the measure.
2 - The determination of the arbitral tribunal on the probability referred to in paragraph 1, subparagraph a), of this article shall not affect the discretion of the arbitral tribunal in making any subsequent determination on any matter.
3 - With regard to the request for an interim measure presented under article 20, paragraph 2, sub-paragraph d), the requirements foreseen in paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs a) and b), of this article shall apply only to the extent the arbitral tribunal considers appropriate.
1 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, a party may, without notice to any other party, make a request for an interim measure together with an application for a preliminary order directing a party not to frustrate the purpose of the interim measure requested.
2 - The arbitral tribunal may grant a preliminary order provided it considers that prior disclosure of the request for the interim measure to the party against whom it is directed risks frustrating the purpose of the measure.
3 - The conditions defined under article 21 apply to any preliminary order, provided that the harm to be assessed under article 21, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph b), is, in such case, the harm likely to result from the order being granted or not.
1 - Immediately after the arbitral tribunal has made a determination in respect of an application for a preliminary order, the arbitral tribunal shall give notice to all parties of the request for the interim measure, the application for the preliminary order, the preliminary order, if any, and all
other communications, including by indicating the content of any oral communications between any party and the arbitral tribunal in relation thereto.
2 - At the same time, the arbitral tribunal shall give an opportunity to the party against whom the preliminary order is directed to present its case, at the earliest practicable time, to be set by the arbitral tribunal.
3 - The arbitral tribunal shall decide promptly on any objection to the preliminary order.
4 - A preliminary order shall expire after 20 days from the date on which it was issued by the arbitral tribunal. However, the arbitral tribunal may issue an interim measure adopting or modifying the preliminary order, after the party against whom the preliminary order is directed has been given notice and an opportunity to present its case.
5 - A preliminary order shall be binding on the parties but shall not be subject to enforcement by a state court.
1 - The arbitral tribunal may modify, suspend or terminate an interim measure or a preliminary order it has granted or issued, upon application of any party or, in exceptional circumstances and after hearing the parties, on the arbitral tribunal’s own initiative.
2 - The arbitral tribunal may require the party requesting an interim measure to provide appropriate security.
3 - The arbitral tribunal shall require the party applying for a preliminary order to provide appropriate security, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate or unnecessary to do so.
1- The parties shall promptly disclose any material change in the circumstances on the basis of which the interim measure was requested or granted.
2- The party applying for a preliminary order shall disclose to the arbitral tribunal all circumstances that are likely to be relevant to the arbitral tribunal’s determination whether to grant or maintain the order, and such obligation shall continue until the party against whom the order has been requested has had an opportunity to present its case. Thereafter, paragraph 1 of this article shall apply.
The party requesting an interim measure or applying for a preliminary order shall be liable for any costs or damages caused by such measure or order to the other party if the arbitral tribunal later determines that, in the circumstances, the measure or the order should not have been granted or issued. The arbitral tribunal may, in the latter situation, order the requesting party to pay the corresponding indemnification at any point during the proceedings.
1 - An interim measure issued by an arbitral tribunal shall be binding on the parties and, unless otherwise provided by the arbitral tribunal, shall be enforced upon application to the competent State court, irrespective of the arbitration in which it was issued being seated abroad, subject to the provisions of article 28.
2 - The party who is seeking or has obtained recognition or enforcement of an interim measure shall promptly inform the State court of any termination, suspension or modification of that interim measure by the arbitral tribunal that has granted it.
3 - The State court where recognition or enforcement of the measure is sought may, if it considers it proper, order the requesting party to provide appropriate security if the arbitral tribunal has not already made a determination with respect to security or where such a decision is necessary to protect the rights of third parties.
4 - The decision of an arbitral tribunal granting a preliminary order or interim measure and the judgment of a State court deciding on the recognition or enforcement of an interim measure issued by an arbitral tribunal are not subject to appeal.
1 - Recognition or enforcement of an interim measure may be refused by a State court only: a) At the request of the party against whom it is invoked, if the court is satisfied that:
i) Such refusal is warranted on the grounds set forth in article 56, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph a), points i), ii), iii) or iv); or ii) The arbitral tribunal’s decision with respect to the provision of security in connection with the interim measure issued by the arbitral tribunal has not been complied with; or
iii) The interim measure has been revoked or suspended by the arbitral tribunal or, where so empowered, by the court of the State in which the arbitration takes place or under the law of which that interim measure was granted; or
b) If the State court finds that:
i) The interim measure is incompatible with the powers conferred upon the State court unless the State court decides to reformulate the interim measure to the extent necessary to adapt it to its own powers and procedures for the purposes of enforcing that interim measure and without modifying its substance; or
ii) Any of the grounds for refusal of recognition set forth in article 56, paragraph 1, sub- paragraph b), points i) or ii) apply to the recognition or enforcement of the interim measure.
2 - Any determination made by the State court on any ground in paragraph 1 of this article shall be effective only for the purposes of the application to recognize or enforce the interim measure granted by the arbitral tribunal. The State court where recognition or enforcement of the interim measure is sought shall not, in making that determination, undertake a review of the substance of the interim measure.
1 - State courts shall have the power to issue interim measures dependent from arbitration proceedings, irrespective of the location where these take place, in the same terms as they may do so in relation to proceedings before State courts.
2 - State courts shall exercise such power in accordance with the applicable procedural rules, taking into consideration the specific features of international arbitration, should that be the case.
1 - The arbitral proceedings shall always comply with the following fundamental principles:
a) The respondent shall be summoned to present its defense;
b) The parties shall be treated with equality and shall be given a reasonable opportunity to present their case, in writing or orally, before the final award is issued;
c) In all phases of the proceedings the adversarial principle shall be guaranteed, with the exceptions set out in this Law.
2 - The parties may, until the acceptance by the first arbitrator, agree on the procedure to be followed by the arbitral tribunal in the conduct of the proceedings, respecting the fundamental principles referred to in the preceding paragraph of this article and the mandatory provisions of this Law.
3 - Failing such agreement of the parties and in the absence of applicable provisions in this Law, the arbitral tribunal may conduct the arbitration in such manner as it considers appropriate, defining the procedural rules it deems adequate and specifying, if this is the case, that it considers the provisions of the law that governs the proceedings before the competent State court to be subsidiarily applicable.
4 - The powers conferred upon the arbitral tribunal include the determination of the admissibility, relevance and weight of any evidence presented or to be presented.
5 - The arbitrators, the parties and the arbitral institutions, if such is the case, are obliged to maintain confidentiality regarding all information obtained and documents brought to their attention in the course of the arbitration proceedings, without prejudice to the right of the parties to make public procedural acts necessary to the defense of their rights and to the duty to communicate or disclose procedural acts to the competent authorities, which may be imposed by law.
6 - The preceding paragraph does not prevent the publication of awards and other decisions of the arbitral tribunal, with the exclusion of any elements of identification of the parties, unless any of them opposes thereto.
1 - The parties are free to agree on the place of arbitration. Failing such agreement, the place of arbitration shall be determined by the arbitral tribunal, having regard to the circumstances of the case, including the convenience of the parties.
2 - Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this article, the arbitral tribunal may, unless otherwise agreed by the parties, meet at any place it considers appropriate to hold one or more hearings, to allow the production of any evidence, or to deliberate.
1 - The parties are free to agree on the language or languages to be used in the arbitral proceedings. Failing such agreement, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the language or languages to be used in the proceedings.
2 - The arbitral tribunal may order that any documentary evidence shall be accompanied by a translation into the language or languages agreed upon by the parties or chosen by the arbitral tribunal.
1 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral proceedings in respect of a particular dispute shall commence on the date on which a request that such dispute be referred to arbitration is received by the respondent.
2 - Within the period of time agreed by the parties or determined by the arbitral tribunal, the claimant shall submit its statement of claim, in which the remedy sought and the facts supporting the claim shall be stated, and the respondent shall present its statement of defence in which its defence in respect of these particulars shall be outlined, unless the parties have agreed otherwise regarding the required elements of such statements. The parties may submit with their written statements all documents they consider to be relevant and may add a reference therein to the documents or other means of evidence they will submit.
3 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, either party may, in the course of the arbitral proceedings, amend or supplement its statement of claim or defence, unless the arbitral tribunal considers it inappropriate to allow such a change having regard to the delay in making it and the absence of sufficient justification for this.
4 - The respondent may present a counterclaim, provided that its subject-matter is covered by the arbitration agreement.
1 - Subject to any contrary agreement by the parties, the tribunal shall decide whether to hold hearings for the presentation of evidence, or whether the proceedings shall be conducted merely on the basis of documents and other means of proof. The arbitral tribunal shall however hold one or more hearings for the presentation of evidence whenever so requested by a party, unless the parties have previously agreed that no hearings shall be held.
2 - The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the arbitral tribunal for the purposes of producing evidence.
3 - All written statements, documents or other information supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall be communicated to the other party. Also any expert report or evidentiary document on which the arbitral tribunal may rely in making its decision shall be communicated to the parties.
1 - If the claimant fails to present its statement of claim in accordance with article 33, paragraph 2, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the arbitral proceedings.
2 - If the respondent fails to present its statement of defense in accordance with article 33, paragraph 2, the arbitral tribunal shall continue the proceedings without treating such failure in itself as an admission of the claimant’s allegations.
3 - If one of the parties fails to appear at a hearing or to produce documentary evidence within the determined period of time, the arbitral tribunal may continue the proceedings and make the award on the evidence before it.
4 - The arbitral tribunal may however, in case it deems the default justified, allow a party to perform the omitted act.
5 - The provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this article are without prejudice to what the parties may have agreed on the consequences of default.
1 - Only third parties bound by the arbitration agreement, whether from the date of such agreement or by having subsequently adhered to it, are allowed to join ongoing arbitral proceedings. Such adhesion requires the consent of all parties to the arbitration agreement and may only take place in respect of the arbitration in question.
2 - If the arbitral tribunal has already been constituted, the joinder of a third party can only be allowed or requested if such party declares that it accepts the current composition of the tribunal; when a joinder is requested by the third party such acceptance is presumed.
3 - Joinder must always be decided by the arbitral tribunal, after giving the original parties to the arbitration and the third party in question the opportunity to state their views. The arbitral tribunal shall only allow joinder if this does not unduly disrupt the normal course of the arbitral proceedings and if there are relevant reasons that justify the joinder, such as, in particular, those situations in which, provided that the request is not clearly impracticable:
a) The third party has an interest in relation to the subject-matter of the dispute equal to that of the claimant or respondent, such that it would have originally permitted voluntary joinder or imposed compulsory joinder between one of the parties to the arbitration and the third party, or
b) The third party wishes to present a claim against the respondent with the same object as that of the claimant, but which is incompatible with the latter’s claim; or
c) The respondent against whom a credit is invoked that may, prima facie, be characterized as a joint and several credit, wants the other possible joint and several creditors to be bound by the final award; or
d) The respondent wants that third parties to be joined, against whom it may have a claim in case the claimant’s request is completely or partially granted.
4 - The provisions of the preceding paragraphs referring to claimant and respondent are applicable, with the necessary adjustments, respectively to respondent and claimant, in case of a counterclaim.
5 - In case a joinder is allowed, the provisions of article 33 shall apply, with the necessary adjustments.
6 - Without prejudice to the following paragraph, a joinder before the arbitral tribunal has been constituted can only take place in institutionalized arbitration, and provided that the applicable arbitration rules ensure that the principle of equal participation of all parties is upheld, including members of multiple parties, in the choice of the arbitrators.
7 - The arbitration agreement may regulate third party joinder in ongoing arbitrations differently from the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, either directly, upholding the principle of equal participation of all parties in the choice of the arbitrators, or by reference to an institutionalized arbitration regulation that allows such joinder.
1 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitral tribunal may, on its own initiative or upon request of the parties, appoint one or more experts to prepare a written or oral report on specific issues to be determined by the arbitral tribunal.
2 - In the case foreseen in the previous paragraph, the arbitral tribunal may require any party to give the expert any relevant information or to produce, or to provide access to, any relevant documents or other goods for the expert’s inspection.
3 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, if a party so requests, or if the arbitral tribunal considers it necessary, the expert shall, after delivery of his or her report, participate in a hearing where the arbitral tribunal and the parties shall have the opportunity to put questions to the expert.
4 - The provisions of article 13 and of article 14, paragraphs 2 and 3, apply, with the necessary adaptations, to the experts appointed by the arbitral tribunal.
1 - When the evidence to be taken depends on the will of one of the parties or of third parties and these refuse to cooperate, a party may, with the approval of the arbitral tribunal, request from the competent State court that the evidence be taken before it, the results thereof being forwarded to the arbitral tribunal.
2 - The preceding paragraph is applicable to the requests to take evidence addressed to a Portuguese State court, in case of arbitrations seated abroad.
1 - The arbitrators shall decide the dispute in accordance with the law, unless the parties agree that they shall decide ex aequo et bono.
2 - If the parties’ agreement to decide ex aequo et bono was entered into after the acceptance by the first arbitrator, its effectiveness shall depend on the acceptance by the arbitral tribunal.
3 - If the parties have entrusted the tribunal with that mission, the tribunal may decide the dispute as amiable compositeur.
4 - The award on the merits of the dispute, or which terminates the arbitral proceedings without a decision on the merits, is only subject to appeal to the competent State court if the parties have expressly contemplated such possibility in the arbitration agreement, and provided that the dispute has not been decided ex aequo et bono or through amiable composition.
1 - In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, any decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be made by a majority of its members. Failing a majority decision, the award shall be made by the chairman of the tribunal.
2 - If an arbitrator refuses to take part in the vote on the decision, the other arbitrators may make the award without such arbitrator, unless otherwise agreed by the parties. The parties shall be subsequently informed of that arbitrator’s refusal to participate in the vote.
3 - Issues related to procedural ordering, procedural sequence or procedural initiative, may be decided by the chairman alone, if so authorized by the parties or all other members of the arbitral tribunal.
1 - If, during arbitral proceedings, the parties settle the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall terminate the proceedings and, if so requested by the parties, record the settlement in the form of an arbitral award on agreed terms, unless the contents of such settlement is in violation of any principle of public policy.
2 - An award on agreed terms shall be made in accordance with the provisions of article 42 and shall state that it is an award. Such an award has the same effect as any other award on the merits of the case.
1 - The award shall be made in writing and shall be signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators. In arbitral proceedings with more than one arbitrator, the signatures of the majority of the members of the arbitral tribunal or that of the chairman, in case the award is to be made by the latter, shall suffice, provided that the reason for the omission of the remaining signatures is stated in the award.
2 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the arbitrators may decide the merits of the dispute in a single award or in as many partial awards as they deem necessary.
3 - The award shall state the reasons upon which it is based, unless the parties have agreed that no reasons are to be given or the award is rendered on the basis of an agreement of the parties under article 41.
4 - The award shall state the date in which it was rendered, as well as the place of the arbitration determined in accordance with article 31, paragraph 1. The award shall be deemed to all effects as having been made at that place.
5 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the award shall determine the proportions in which the parties shall bear the costs directly resulting from the arbitration. The arbitrators may furthermore decide in the award, if they so deem fair and appropriate, that one or some of the parties shall compensate the other party or parties for the whole or part of the reasonable costs and expenses that they can prove to have incurred due to their participation in the arbitration.
6 - After the award is made, it shall be immediately notified through the delivery to each of the parties of a copy signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators, in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article. The award shall produce its effects on the date of such notification, without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 7.
7 - An arbitral award that cannot be appealed and that is no longer subject to amendments under article 45 has the same binding effect on the parties as the final and binding judgment of a State court, and is enforceable as a State court judgment.
1 - Unless the parties have agreed, up to the acceptance by the first arbitrator, on a different time-limit, the arbitrators shall deliver the final award on the dispute brought before them to the parties within 12 months from the date of acceptance of the last arbitrator.
2 - The time-limit set in accordance with paragraph 1 may be freely extended one or more times by an agreement of the parties or, alternatively, by a decision of the arbitral tribunal, for successive periods of 12 months, such extensions to be duly motivated. The parties may, however, by mutual agreement, oppose the extension.
3 - Failure to deliver the final award within the maximum time-limit set in accordance with the preceding paragraphs of this article shall automatically terminate the arbitral proceedings and the arbitrators’ jurisdiction to decide on the dispute. The arbitration agreement will, however, remain effective, notably in order that a new arbitral tribunal may be constituted and a new arbitration commenced.
4 - The arbitrators that unjustifiably prevent the award from being made within the time-limit set for that purpose shall be liable for damages thus caused.
1 - The arbitral proceedings are terminated by the final award or by an order of the arbitral tribunal in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article.
2 - The arbitral tribunal shall issue an order for the termination of the arbitral proceedings when:
a) The claimant withdraws its claim, unless the respondent objects thereto and the arbitral tribunal recognizes a legitimate interest on its part in obtaining a final settlement of the dispute;
b) The parties agree on the termination of the proceedings;
c) The arbitral tribunal finds that the continuation of the proceedings has for any reason become unnecessary or impossible.
3 - The mandate of the arbitral tribunal terminates with the termination of the arbitral proceedings, subject to the provisions of article 45 and article 46, paragraph.
4 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the chairman of the arbitral tribunal shall keep the original file of the arbitral proceedings for a minimum period of two years and the original arbitral award for a minimum period of five years.
1 - Within thirty days of receipt of the notification of the award, unless another period of time has been agreed upon by the parties, any party may, with notice to the other party, request the arbitral tribunal to correct in the award any errors in computation, any clerical or typographical error or any error of an identical nature.
2 - In the time period foreseen in the previous paragraph any party may, with notice to the other party, request the arbitral tribunal to clarify any obscurity or ambiguity of the award or of the reasons on which it is based.
3 - If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the correction or give the clarification within 30 days of receipt of the request. The clarification shall form part of the award.
4 - The arbitral tribunal may also on its own initiative correct any error of the type referred to in paragraph 1 of this article within thirty days of the date of notice of the award.
5 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, any party may, with notice to the other party, request the arbitral tribunal within 30 days of receipt of the notice of the award to make an additional award as to parts of the claim or claims submitted in the arbitral proceedings but omitted from the award. If the arbitral tribunal considers the request to be justified, it shall make the additional award within 60 days of the request.
6 - The arbitral tribunal may extend, if necessary, the period of time within which it may correct, clarify or complete the award under paragraphs 1, 2 or 5 of this article, without prejudice to the compliance with the time-limit set in accordance with article 43.
7 - The provisions of article 42 shall apply to the correction and clarification of the award as well as to the additional award.
1 - Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, under article 39, paragraph 4, recourse to a State court against an arbitral award may be made only by an application for setting aside in accordance with the provisions of this article.
2 - The application for setting aside the arbitral award, which must be accompanied by a certified copy thereof, and, if it is drafted in a foreign language, by a translation into Portuguese, shall be submitted to the competent State court, observing the following rules, without prejudice to the provisions of the further paragraphs of this article:
a) Evidence shall be presented with the application;
b) The opposing party shall be summoned to present its opposition to the request and to present evidence;
c) The requesting party may present a statement in reply to eventual objections raised by the opposing party;
d) The taking of evidence shall follow;
e) The procedure shall follow, with the necessary adjustments, the rules on appeals;
f) The action for setting aside is considered, for effects of distribution, a type 5 class of action.
3 - An arbitral award may be set aside by the competent State court only if:
a) The party making the application furnishes proof that:
i) One of the parties to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under this Law; or
ii) There has been a violation within the proceedings of some of the fundamental principles referred in article 30, paragraph 1, with a decisive influence on the outcome of the dispute; or
iii) The award dealt with a dispute not contemplated by the arbitration agreement, or contains decisions beyond the scope of the latter; or
iv) The composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties, unless such agreement was in conflict with a provision of this Law from which the parties cannot derogate, or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with this Law, and, in any case, this inconformity had a decisive influence on the decision of the dispute; or
v) The arbitral tribunal has condemned in an amount in excess of what was claimed or on a different claim from that that was presented, or has dealt with issues that it should not have dealt with, or has failed to decide issues that it should have decided; or
vi) The award was made in violation of the requirements set out in article 42, paragraphs 1 and 3; or vii) The award was notified to the parties after the maximum time-limit set in accordance with article 43 had lapsed; or
b) The court finds that:
i) The subject-matter of the dispute cannot be decided by arbitration under Portuguese law;
ii) The content of the award is in conflict with the principles of international public policy of the Portuguese State.
4 - If a party, knowing that one of the provisions of this Law that parties can derogate from, or any condition set out in the arbitration agreement, was not respected, and nonetheless continues the arbitration without immediate opposition or, if there is a defined time-limit therefore, does not object within said time-limit, it is deemed that the party has waived the right to set aside the arbitral award on such grounds.
5 - Without prejudice to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the right to apply for the setting aside of an arbitral award cannot be waived.
6 - An application for setting aside may only be made within 60 days from the date on which the party making that application had received the notification of the award or, if a request had been made under article 45, from the date on which such request had been disposed of by the arbitral tribunal.
7 - If the part of the award as to which any of the grounds for setting aside referred to in paragraph 3 of this article is considered to have occurred can be separated from the rest of the award, only that part of the award shall be set aside.
8 - The competent State court, when asked to set aside an arbitral award, may, where appropriate, and if it is so requested by ones of the parties, suspend the setting aside proceedings for a period of time determined by it, in order to give the arbitral tribunal the opportunity to resume the arbitral proceedings or to take such other action as the arbitral tribunal deems likely to eliminate the grounds for setting aside.
9 - The State court that sets aside the arbitral award may not deal with the merits of the issue or issues decided in the award, such issues to be submitted, if any party so wishes, to another arbitral tribunal in order to be decided by the latter.
10 - Unless the parties have agreed otherwise, setting aside the award shall result in the arbitration agreement becoming operative again in respect of the subject-matter of the dispute.
1 - The party applying for the enforcement of the award to the competent State court shall supply the original award or a certified copy thereof and, if the award is not made in Portuguese, a certified translation thereof into this language.
2 - In case the arbitral tribunal has issued an award without liquidating the damages, such liquidation shall be made under article 805, paragraph 4, of the Civil Procedure Code; however, the arbitral tribunal may be requested to liquidate the damages under article 45, paragraph 5, in which case the arbitral tribunal, after giving the other party the opportunity to state its views and after evidence has been taken, shall issue a supplementary decision, judging on equitable terms within the proven limits.
3 - The arbitral award may be enforced even if an application for setting aside in accordance with article 46 has been made; however, the party against whom enforcement is invoked may request that such application has a suspensive effect of the enforcement proceedings, provided that such party offers to provide security, such effect only being granted if and when security is effectively provided within the time-limit set by the court. In this case the provisions of article 818, paragraph 3, of the Civil Procedure Code shall apply.
4 - For the purposes of the previous paragraph, the provisions of articles 692-A and 693-A of the Civil Procedure Code shall apply, with the necessary adjustments.
1 - The party against whom enforcement of the arbitral award is invoked may oppose the enforcement on any of the grounds which may be used for the setting aside of the award foreseen in article 46, paragraph 3, provided that, on the date on which the opposition is presented, an application for setting aside on the same grounds has not already been rejected by a final and binding judgment.
2 - The party against whom enforcement of the arbitral award is requested may not base its opposition on any of the grounds set out in article 46, number 3, sub-paragraph a), if the time- limit provided for in paragraph 6 of the same article to apply for the setting aside of the award has expired, without any party having made such application.
3 - Notwithstanding the expiry of the time-limit provided for in article 46, paragraph 6, the judge may ex officio, under article 820 of the Civil Procedure Code, examine the merits of the ground for setting aside foreseen in article 46, paragraph 3, sub-paragraph b), of this Law, whereby it shall, if it considers that the award is invalid for that reason, reject enforcement on such grounds.
4 - The provisions of paragraph 2 of the present article do not affect the possibility of invoking, in the opposition to the enforcement of the arbitral award, any of the other grounds foreseen in the applicable procedural law, under the terms and within the time limits provided therein.
1 - An arbitration is considered international when international trade interests are at stake.
2 - Notwithstanding what is provided in the present chapter, the provisions of this Law on domestic arbitration shall apply to international arbitration, with the necessary adjustments.
When the arbitration is international and one of the parties to the arbitration agreement is a State, a State-controlled organization or a State-controlled company, this party may not invoke its domestic law to either challenge the arbitrability of the dispute or its capacity to be a party to the arbitration, neither to in any other way evade its obligations arising from such agreement.
1 - In an international arbitration, the arbitration agreement is valid as to its substance and the dispute it governs may be submitted to arbitration if the requirements set out either by the law chosen by the parties to govern the arbitration agreement, by the law applicable to the subject-matter of the dispute or by Portuguese law are met.
2 - The State court to which an application is made to set aside an award in an international arbitration seated in Portugal, on the grounds foreseen in article 46, paragraph 3, subparagraph b), of this Law, shall take into consideration the preceding paragraph of this article.
1 - The parties may choose the rules of law to be applied by the arbitrators, if they have not authorized them to decide ex aequo et bono. Any choice of the law or legal system of a given State shall be construed, unless otherwise expressly agreed, as directly referring to the substantive law of that State and not to its conflict of laws rules.
2 - Failing any choice by the parties, the arbitral tribunal shall apply the law of the State with which the subject-matter of the dispute has the closest connection.
3 - In both cases referred to in the preceding paragraphs, the arbitral tribunal shall take into consideration the contractual terms agreed by the parties and the relevant trade usages.
In international arbitration the award made by the arbitral tribunal is subject to no appeal, unless the parties have expressly agreed on the possibility of an appeal to another arbitral tribunal and regulated its terms.
An award made in Portugal, in an international arbitration in which non-Portuguese law has been applied to the merits of the dispute, may be set aside on the grounds provided for in article 46, and also, if such award is be enforced or produce other effects in national territory, whenever such enforcement leads to a result that is manifestly incompatible with the principles of international public policy.
Without prejudice to the mandatory provisions of the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, as well as to other treaties or conventions that bind the Portuguese State, the awards made in arbitrations seated abroad shall only be effective in Portugal, regardless of the nationality of the parties, if they have been recognized by the competent Portuguese State court, under the present chapter of this Law.
1 - Recognition and enforcement of an arbitral award made in an arbitration taking place in a foreign country may only be refused:
a) At the request of the party against whom the award is invoked, if that party furnishes to the competent court to which recognition or enforcement is demanded proof that:
i) A party to the arbitration agreement was under some incapacity; or the said agreement is not valid under the law to which the parties have subjected it or, failing any indication thereon, under the law of the country where the award was made; or
ii) The party against whom the award is invoked was not given proper notice of the appointment of an arbitrator or of the arbitral proceedings or was otherwise unable to present its case; or
iii) The award deals with a dispute not contemplated by the arbitration agreement or contains decisions on matters beyond the scope of the arbitration agreement; however, if the decisions on matters submitted to arbitration can be separated from those not so submitted, that part of the award which contains decisions on matters submitted to arbitration may be recognized and enforced; or
iv) The composition of the arbitral tribunal or the arbitral procedure was not in accordance with the agreement of the parties or, failing such agreement, was not in accordance with the law of the country where the arbitration took place; or
v) The award has not yet become binding on the parties or has been set aside or suspended by a court of the country in which, or under the law of which, that award was made; or
b) If the court finds that:
i) The subject-matter of the dispute is not capable of settlement by arbitration under Portuguese law; or
ii) The recognition or enforcement of the award would lead to a result clearly incompatible with the international public policy of the Portuguese State.
2 - If an application for setting aside or suspension of an award has been made to a court in the country referred to in paragraph 1, sub-paragraph a), sub-sub-paragraph v), of the present article, the Portuguese State court to which recognition or enforcement are requested may, if it considers it proper, stay the proceedings and may also, on the application of the party claiming recognition and enforcement of the award, order the other party to provide appropriate security.
1 - The party that seeks recognition of a foreign arbitral award, particularly if enforcement in Portugal is sought, shall supply the duly authenticated original award or a duly certified copy thereof, as well as the original of the arbitration agreement or a duly authenticated copy thereof. If the award or the agreement is not made in Portuguese, the party that seeks recognition shall supply a duly certified translation thereof into this language.
2 - After the application for recognition, accompanied by the documents referred to in the preceding paragraph, is made, the opposing party shall be summoned to present its opposition, within 15 days.
3 - After the written pleadings and the procedural steps deemed indispensable by the rapporteur are taken, access to the file is granted to the parties and to the Public Prosecutor, for 15 days, for the purpose of closing arguments.
4 - The trial is conducted pursuant to the rules applicable to appeals.
In the recognition of an arbitral award made in an arbitration taking place abroad and related to a dispute that, according to Portuguese law, should fall under the jurisdiction of the administrative courts, the provisions of article 56, 57 and 59, paragraph 2, of this Law shall apply, with the necessary adjustments to the specific procedural regime of these courts.
1 - Regarding disputes that fall under the jurisdiction of judicial courts, the Court of Appeal in whose district the place of arbitration is located or, in case of a decision referred to in sub- paragraph h) of paragraph 1 of this article, in which the domicile of the person against whom the decision to be invoked is located, is competent to decide on:
a) The appointment of arbitrators who have not been appointed by the parties or by third parties that have been entrusted with this duty, in accordance with the provisions of article 10, paragraphs 3, 4 and 5, and article 11, paragraph 1;
b) The challenge made under article 14, paragraph 2, against an arbitrator who has not accepted such challenge, in case the challenge is deemed to be justified;
c) The removal of an arbitrator, requested under article 15, paragraph 1;
d) The reduction of the amount of fees or expenses fixed by the arbitrators, under article 17, paragraph 3;
e) The appeal of the arbitral award, when it has been agreed on under article 39, paragraph 4;
f) The challenge of an arbitral tribunal’s interim award on its own jurisdiction, in accordance with article 18, paragraph 9;
g) The recourse against the final award made by the arbitral tribunal, in accordance with article 46;
h) The recognition of an arbitral award made in an arbitration taking place abroad.
2 - In respect of disputes that, according to Portuguese law, fall under the jurisdiction of administrative courts, the Central Administrative Court in whose circuit the place of arbitration is located, or in case of a decision referred to in paragraph 1, sub-paragraph h), of this article, in which the domicile of the person against whom the decision is to be invoked is located, is competent to decide on the matters referred to in any of the sub-paragraphs of paragraph 1 of this article.
3 - The President of the Court of Appeal or the President of the Central Administrative Court that have territorial jurisdiction shall, depending on the nature of the dispute, be competent to appoint the arbitrators referred to in paragraph 1, sub-paragraph a), of this article.
4 - For any issues or matters not covered by paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of the present article and regarding which this Law confers competence to a State court, the judicial court of first instance or the administrative court in whose jurisdiction the place of arbitration is located shall be competent, depending on whether the dispute falls respectively within the jurisdiction of the judicial courts or of the administrative courts.
5 - In respect of disputes falling under the jurisdiction of judicial courts, the judicial court of first instance in whose jurisdiction the interim measure should be granted in accordance with the rules on territorial jurisdiction provided for in article 83 of the Civil Procedure Code, or in whose jurisdiction the production of evidence requested under article 38, paragraph 2, of this Law should occur, is competent to render assistance under article 29 and article 38, paragraph 2, of this Law to arbitrations located abroad.
6 - Regarding disputes falling under the jurisdiction of administrative courts, the assistance to arbitrations located abroad is rendered by the administrative court with territorial jurisdiction in accordance with paragraph 5 of this article, to be applied with the necessary adjustments to the regime of administrative courts.
7 - In the proceedings leading to the decisions referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, the competent court shall observe the provisions of articles 46, 56, 57, 58 and 60 of this Law.
8 - Unless it is stated in this Law that the competent State court decision shall not be subject to appeal, the decisions rendered by the State courts referred to in the preceding paragraphs of this article, in accordance with what is provided therein, are subject to appeal to the court or courts superior in hierarchy, whenever such recourse is admissible pursuant to the rules that apply to the possibility of appeal of the decisions in question.
9 - The enforcement of an arbitral award made in Portugal shall take place in the competent State court of first instance, under the applicable procedural law.
10 - The judicial courts of first instance in whose jurisdiction the domicile of the defendant is located, or of the place of arbitration, as chosen by the claimant, are competent for an action concerning civil liability of an arbitrator.
11 - If in an arbitral proceeding a judicial or an administrative court, or the respective President, consider the dispute as falling under that court’s jurisdiction for the purposes of this article, such decision is not, in this part, subject to appeal and must be complied with by all others courts called upon in the same proceedings to exercise any of the powers provided herein.
1 - Whenever it is intended that the competent State court renders a decision under any of sub-paragraphs a) to d) of article 59, paragraph 1, the interested party shall present in its application the facts that justify the request, including the information it considers relevant to this effect.
2 - Upon receipt of the application foreseen in the previous paragraph, the other parties in the arbitration and, if such is the case, the arbitral tribunal, are notified to state their views thereon within 10 days.
3 - Before rendering its decision, the court may, if it deems it necessary, gather or request all information deemed convenient in order to render its decision.
4 - The procedures set out in the preceding paragraphs of this article are always deemed urgent, the respective actions having priority over any other non-urgent judicial service.
The present Law is applicable to all arbitrations that take place in Portuguese territory, as well as to the recognition and enforcement in Portugal of awards made in arbitrations seated abroad.
1- The creation in Portugal of institutionalized arbitration centres is subject to authorization of the Minister of Justice, under the terms provided for in special legislation.
2 - The reference made in Decree-Law no. 425/86, dated 27th December 1986, to article 38 of Law no. 31/86, dated 29th August 1986, shall be considered as made to the present article.